I recently saw a LinkedIn post on the subject of “What is Project Management?” that suggested the standard PMI definition of project management from PMBOK:
“the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to the project activities to meet project requirements”
What’s Wrong With This Definition?
I had to respond to that because it seems to me that this classic definition that so many people seem to take for granted is way out-of-date.
- It seems to be based on the narrow, traditional notion that a project manager is someone who manages the costs and schedule of a project to meet defined requirements
- That implies that there is only one way to do project management and that is based on simply executing a project where the requirements have been defined in advance
- And “Project Management” is something that is only performed by someone called a “Project Manager”
We need to significantly expand that thinking to embrace the idea that a project manager may play a role in a much more uncertain environment where the requirements are less-defined and the project requires a more adaptive (Agile) approach that is focused more on maximizing the value the project produces rather than being totally focused on managing costs and schedules to deliver well-defined requirements.
The person performing that function may not even have the formal title of “Project Manager”. Many people will claim that is not “project management” because there have been so many well-established stereotypes that have developed over the years about what “project management” is.
Project Management Stereotypes
Here are a few of the common stereotypes that exist about project management:
Project Managers Are Very “Command-and-Control” Oriented
Project managers are noted for getting results and sometimes that means being assertive and somewhat directive to set goals and manage the performance of project teams. Many times that behavior is expected of a project manager by the businesses that they operate in. In many companies if a project team is under-performing, the Project Manager is the one held responsible and is expected to take corrective action to get the project on track.
Project Managers Are Rigid and Inflexible and Only Know How to Manage by the “Waterfall” Methodology
For many years, project managers have been held accountable for managing the costs and schedules of projects and we all know that in order to meet cost and schedule goals, you have to control the scope of the project. That, in turn, requires a disciplined approach to defining and documenting detailed requirements and controlling changes where changes become the exception rather than the norm.
The emphasis on managing costs and schedules naturally leads to extensive use of plan-driven or “Waterfall-style” methodologies that are based on trying to define the project requirements in detail upfront before the project starts and controlling changes once the project is in progress.
Project Managers Are Just Not Adaptive and Cannot Adapt to an Agile Environment
Like the other stereotypes, there may be some amount of truth in this stereotype, but it would be inaccurate to generalize and say that this is true of all project managers. Agile will require some considerable rethinking of the project management approach and some project managers are so heavily ingrained in the traditional way of operating because it has been so widely accepted as the norm for such a long time that they may have a difficult time adjusting to an Agile project approach.
Where Does Project Management Fit in Agile/Scrum?
If you look at how an Agile/Scrum project works, there is actually a lot of “project management” going on but many people will not recognize it as “project management” because it doesn’t fit with the traditional stereotype of what “project management” is:
- In an Agile/Scrum project you may not find anyone at the team level with the title of “Project Manager”
- The project management functions that would normally be done by a single person called a “Project Manager” are distributed among all the members of the Agile team. For example:
- Developers – All members of the project team are expected to take responsibility for planning and completing the tasks that they are responsible for to meet commitments that they have made. They are also expected to report progress and coordinate their work with other members of the team as necessary.
- Scrum Master – The Scrum Master is expected to facilitate team meetings and take action to remove any obstacles if necessary
- Product Owner – The Product Owner is expected to make any decisions or tradeoffs that might be needed to meet the project goals
- It doesn’t use a traditional plan-driven approach to project management – the requirements may not be well-defined at the beginning of the project and it uses a more adaptive approach to further refine the requirements as the project is in progress
Does that mean that there is no “project management” going on? I don’t think so – it’s just a different kind of “project management” that doesn’t fit the typical narrow stereotype that many people have of what “project management” is.
What is a Broader Definition of “Project Management”?
In my opinion, we need to make some radical shifts in thinking about what “Project Management” is – it’s evident to me that the project management profession and PMI, in particular, seem to unintentionally perpetuate these stereotypes by not addressing these basic definitions that are published in PMBOK that many project managers have taken for granted for many years.
Here’s my suggestion for a broader definition of what “Project Management” is:
“Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to maximize the value that the project produces.”
Project management is focused on maximizing business results within the context of the business environment that a project is part of in a way that is appropriate to the nature of the project.
I’m sure that definition could be fine-tuned, but the key point that I’m trying to get across is that:
- There isn’t just one way to do project management and one of the greatest skills of anyone performing a project management function should be to select the right approach to fit the nature of the project within the context of the business environment the project is part of.
- I’m also not excluding the possibility that this function might be performed by someone who doesn’t have the title of “Project Manager” (for example, a Product Owner in an Agile/Scrum project).
The definition of “Project Management” should not be limited to someone who has a title of “Project Manager”. In an Agile environment, “Project Management” functions are often distributed among other roles, but just because they are being done by someone who has does not have a formal title of “Project Manager” doesn’t mean that they are not part of the functional discipline of “Project Management”.
You will find much more detail on this in my Online Agile Project Management Training.