Tag Archives: Hybrid Agile Approach

Free Agile Webinar for Project Managers

Transform yourself into a high impact Agile Project Manager!

This free Agile webinar will help project managers understand how to dramatically transform themselves into a very high impact Agile Project Management role!

Free Agile Webinar

Why This Agile Webinar Is Important

This Agile Webinar is very important for project managers. Agile is having a very significant impact on the project management profession:

  • Traditional, plan-driven project management has not changed significantly since the 1950’s and 1960’s
  • Many projects are moving rapidly to an Agile approach

Weaknesses in Traditional Project Management Approach

Agile addresses several major weaknesses in a traditional plan-driven project management approach:

  • It is not well-suited for an environment with a high level of uncertainty
  • The emphasis on planning and control can stifle creativity and innovation
  • Unnecessary overhead can increase costs and slow progress

The Challenge for Project Managers

Traditional, plan-driven project management is still useful if it is done in the right context; however:

  • Any  project manager who only knows traditional plan-driven project management and force-fits all projects to that approach will have limited success
  • Project managers need to learn how to blend Agile and traditional plan-driven project management principles and practices in the right proportions to fit any given situation

That is exactly the challenge that this webinar will help you understand.

Agile Webinar Summary – What You Will Learn

Here’s a summary of what you will learn in this Free Agile Project Management Webinar:

1. Learn to Fit the Approach to the Nature of the Project

Agile and traditional plan-driven project management (what many people loosely call “Waterfall”) are seen as binary and mutually-exclusive choices:

  • As a result, many people tend to think they need to force-fit a project to one of those extremes
  • The right solution is to go in the other direction and fit the methodology to the nature of the project
  • That can require a lot more skill to do that but it definitely can be done

2. Develop a More Adaptive Approach

In the world we live in today:

  • Technologies tend to be much more dynamic and rapidly-changing and projects may have very high levels of uncertainty
  • That makes it very difficult, if not impossible, to successfully apply a traditional, plan-driven project management approach in many situations that call for a much more adaptive approach

3. Understand the Convergence of Agile and Traditional Project Management

The convergence of these approaches raises the bar for the project management profession and will likely have a significant impact on the careers of many project managers.

4. Learn Where PMI-ACP Fits In

PMI® has recognized the importance of Agile and has created the PMI-ACP® certification. PMI-ACP is a step in the right direction; however it has several limitations:

  • PMI-ACP doesn’t address the challenge that many project managers face of learning how to blend Agile and traditional plan-driven project management
  • Agile and traditional, plan-driven project management are still treated as separate and independent domains of knowledge with little or no integration between the two
  • It is also a general test of Agile and Lean knowledge and doesn’t focus on a specific real-world job that a project manager might play

Overall Summary

This Agile webinar will help you:

  • Better understand the challenges Agile presents to project managers, and
  • The impact on your career as a project manager
  • It will help you begin to develop a broader, high-impact view of what “project management” is

What is a “Hybrid Agile” Approach? Is There Such a Thing?

What is a hybrid Agile Approach? Is there such a thing? I recently came across an article on the Internet that was posted in several places entitled “The Moment of truth: There Is No Hybrid Agile“.

  • This article is so full of stereotypes and misconceptions about “Agile” and “Waterfall” that I felt that I had to respond to it. 
  • It is typical of many articles that position “Agile” and “Waterfall” as two binary and mutually-exclusive alternatives with no middle ground between the two.

What Are the Flaws in This Thinking?

Treating Agile and Waterfall as Discrete, Binary Opposites

The biggest flaw in this thinking is that this article and many others like it treat “Agile” and “Waterfall” as if they were individual, discrete methodologies. They also position “Agile” and “Waterfall”  as diametrical opposites of each other.  That’s not very accurate.

“Agile” and “Waterfall” are not really discrete, individual methodologies at all and both of those terms are used very loosely.  In common usage. Neither of those are individual, discrete methodologies:

  • Many people  may think of “Agile” as being synonymous with Scrum but that is not really accurate.  “Agile” is much broader than Scrum – it is a way of thinking defined by the Agile Manifesto
  • “Waterfall” is also not a single, discrete methodology. In today’s world, many people use the term “Waterfall” for any plan-driven methodology that is not Agile.  What about RUP and other iterative approaches that probably wouldn’t be considered to be Agile?  Is that “Waterfall”?

A Better Way of Thinking

Instead of thinking of what people commonly call “Agile and “Waterfall” as individual discrete methodologies, it is more accurate to see it as a continuous spectrum of approaches from heavily plan-driven at one extreme to heavily adaptive at the other extreme like this:

What is a hybrid agile approach?

If you think of it in that way, it is much easier to see the possibility for lots of approaches in the middle of that spectrum that blend the right level of plan-driven principles and practices with more adaptive principles and practices to fit a given situation.

Here’s what some methodologies would look like plotted on a spectrum of heavily plan-driven versus heavily adaptive:

Adaptive vs Plan-driven

As you can see from this diagram, “Agile” is not a single approach and there is not just one way to do “Agile”:

  • Kanban is more adaptive than Scrum, and
  • Even within Scrum you will find different styles of implementation from
    • Simple team-level projects which may tend to be more adaptive to
    • Larger more complex multi-team projects which may tend to be somewhat more plan-driven

Putting It Into Practice

The most important point to get out of this is that there is not a clear and well-defined boundary line between “Agile” and “Waterfall” as many people seem to think.

Fitting the Approach to the Nature of the Problem

Many people make the mistake of performing a methodology mechanically. They think they need to do it religiously and “by the book”(That’s true of both Agile and other non-Agile methodologies)

  • The right approach is to fit the methodology to the nature of the problem rather than force-fitting all problems to a given methodology (Agile or non-Agile)
  • It takes more skill to do that but it definitely can be done.
  • It requires understanding the principles behind the methodology and why they make sense in a given situation rather than doing a given methodology mechanically

If you think of methodologies as being rigid and prescriptive,

  • It will be difficult to see how two seemingly disparate methodologies could be blended together in the right proportions to fit a given situation.
  • On the other hand, if you understand the principles behind the methodologies at a deeper level, it is much easier to see how they could be complementary to each other rather than competitive.

Learning to be a “Chef”

It can take a lot more skill to learn how to blend different approaches together in the right proportions to fit a given situation. In my book on Agile Project Management, I use the analogy of a project manager as a “cook” and a project manager as a “chef”.

A Good “Cook”

“A good ‘cook’:

  • May have the ability to create some very good meals, but
  • Those dishes may be limited to a repertoire of standard dishes.
  • And, his/her knowledge of how to prepare those meals may be primarily based on following some predefined recipes out of a cookbook”.
A “Chef”

“A ‘chef’, on the other hand,

  • Typically has a far greater ability to prepare a much broader range of more sophisticated dishes using much more exotic ingredients in some cases.
  • His/her knowledge of how to prepare those meals is not limited to predefined recipes, and
  • In many cases, a chef will create entirely new and innovative recipes for a given situation
  • The best chefs are not limited to a single cuisine. They are capable of combining dishes from entirely different kinds of cuisine.

That’s the challenge for project managers and agile practitioners in today’s world – we need more chefs and fewer cooks.

What is a Hybrid Agile Approach?

In simple terms, a hybrid Agile approach is one that blends the plan-driven principles and practices with Agile (adaptive) principles and practices in the right proportions to fit a given situation.

Managed Agile Development Framework

An example of that is the Managed Agile Development framework that I created. It simply wraps an outer layer of project-level planning around an Agile development process.

Managed Agile Development Framework

The outer layer can be as thick or thin as necessary to fit the situation.

The Origin of This Approach

I originally developed this framework when I was managing a very large government program for a US government agency.

  • The government agency had to have some level of predictability over the costs and schedules of the program.
  • The program was so large that it actually had some level of congressional oversight so some level of predictability and control was essential
  • However, within that outer envelope, the government agency customer wanted to have flexibility in many of the detailed requirements.
  • We were able to find the right balance of control and flexibility to satisfy both needs.

What Are Examples of Hybrid Agile Approaches?

Some of the most common examples of hybrid Agile approaches are:

Agile Contracts

  • The government program I mentioned is a good example
  • I also have a case study in my book on General Dynamics UK, Ltd. They successfully used a hybrid Agile approach to manage a large defense contract for the ministry of defense in the UK
  • I just finished building a new house. I naturally had a contract with the builder that defined the cost and schedule for the home. However, the builder offered a lot of flexibility to make changes even as the construction of the house was in progress (He charges for changes, of course)

Large, Enterprise-level Projects and Programs

It’s almost impossible to successfully implement some large complex enterprise-level projects and programs without integrating some level of project and program management.

  • A good example of that is the Harvard Pilgrim Healthcare case study that is written up in my latest book.
  • The project involved over 100 Agile teams and involved replacing almost everyone of HPHC’s most critical business systems over a period of time
  • The whole effort involved a lot of moving parts that had to be carefully planned and synchronized. It’s impossible to imagine how that could be done without a sufficient level of project and program management to guide and manage the overall effort

Other Business-driven Initiatives

Many people have the mistaken belief that you need to force the entire company to be agile in order to adopt an Agile development approach. That isn’t necessarily true.

Fitting the Approach to the Business

A business has to be designed around whatever critical success factors are most important for the business that they’re in. Becoming agile may not be the only factor and may not even be the most significant factor.

  • For example, some companies are in very cost-competitive industries and succeed primarily based on operational excellence to lower their costs as much as possible
  • Becoming more agile may play an indirect role in that but it isn’t necessarily the most important factor
Product Development Companies

On the other hand, in a company that is technology-driven that succeeds on bringing leading-edge products to market as quickly as possible, it’s much easier to see how a pure Agile approach might be a very strong and direct driver of the business

  • Agile was originally developed for companies that do product development and that’s where it works best.
  • In companies whose primary business is not developing products per se, there is typically more of a project-oriented approach.
  • The company has to typically evaluate a potential portfolio of projects to determine what mix of projects and programs is going to have the greatest impact on their business.
  • Then they need to monitor the execution of those projects and programs to determine if it is really delivering the expected returns.

Additional Resources

You will find much more detail on this in my Online Agile Project Management Training.

Managed Agile Development Framework – A Hybrid Approach

I’ve seen many people ask a question like “should I use Agile or Waterfall for a project? That excludes the possibility that there is a hybrid approach that provides the benefits of both approaches. The Managed Agile Development Framework is an example of a hybrid approach that is very easy to implement

Background

A few years ago, I was responsible for managing a large government project.

  • The project required meeting some defined cost and schedule milestones
  • However, the customer wanted to take an Agile approach to defining the requirements.

In response to that project, I developed an approach which I call “The Managed Agile Development” framework that would satisfy those two seemingly inconsistent goals. The framework consisted of two levels:

LayerDescription
Macro LevelThe “Macro” level was the outer envelope of the project. It was focused primarily on managing overall contractual requirements
Micro LevelWithin that “macro level” envelope, we were still able to implement a fairly flexible Agile development approach at the “micro-level”
Managed Agile Development Framework

How Does It Work?

There are two layers in the framework as shown in the diagram above. The “Macro” layer is plan-driven; but it can be as “thick” or “thin” as you want it to be. The “Micro” layer can be any Agile development approach such as Scrum.

  • The macro-level framework is a plan-driven approach. It is designed to provide a sufficient level of control and predictability for the overall project. It defines the outer envelope (scope and high-level requirements) that the project operates within
  • Within that outer envelope, the micro-level framework utilizes a more flexible and iterative approach based on an Agile/Scrum approach. It is designed to be adaptive to user needs

Trade-offs to Consider

Naturally, there are tradeoffs between

  • The level of agility and flexibility to adapt to change at the “micro-level” and
  • The level of predictability and control at the “macro-level”.

It is important that both the client or business sponsor and the development team need to agree on those trade-offs. The framework provides a mechanism for making those trade-offs by making the “macro-level” as “thick” or “thin” as you want to fit a given situation.

Increasing Predictability and Control

Increasing the level of predictability and control requires:

  • Beefing up the macro-level,
  • Providing more detailed requirements at that level, and
  • Implementing at least a limited amount of change control

Increasing Agility

To increase the level of agility:

  • You can simply eliminate the macro-level altogether or limit it to only very high-level requirements
  • Other elements of the framework can be easily customized or eliminated depending on the scope and complexity of the project and other factors

Change Control

A question that often comes up is “How do you handle change control?”. The answer to that question is that:

  • You have to design enough slack into the milestones at the “macro” level to allow detailed elaboration of requirements to take place in the “micro” level.
  • However, when there is a significant enough change in the “micro” level that would impact achievement of the requirements in the “macro” level, that should trigger a change to the “macro” level milestones.

General Approach for Agile Contracts

This general approach can be used on almost any project. Check out this article for more detail on Agile Contracts:

Agile Contracts

Additional Resources

You will find much more detail on this in my Online Agile Project Management Training.