Many software development projects are moving rapidly to an Agile development approach. That has dramatically impacted the role of a project manager in an Agile environment. Agile also has a significant impact on the role of a Business Analyst. In this article, we will explore “What is an Agile Business Analyst?” and “How is the role different?”.
Traditional Business Analyst Role
The traditional role of a Business Analyst is defined as follows:
“The business analyst’s primary objective is helping businesses implement technology solutions in a cost-effective way by determining the requirements of a project or program, and communicating them clearly to stakeholders, facilitators and partners.” Business Analyst Job Description, Villanova Univ.
That’s the predominant role that has been played by Business Analysts for many years. In some cases, the role has boiled down to simply talking to users about what their needs are and writing requirements documents.
- That it has been a very documentation-intensive role.
- However, the real value-added that a Business Analyst should provide is in helping to define innovative solutions to business problems.
- It should not be limited to just simply creating requirements documents.
In a traditional plan-driven environment, documentation often takes on a life of its own. In that environment, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that the goal is to create business value and documentation is only a by-product.
What Are the Skills Needed by a Business Analyst?
For a Business Analyst to really provide value beyond simply writing requirements documents, the Business Analyst has to have an understanding of:
|Business Domain Knowledge||In-depth knowledge of the Business Domain that they work in (finance, healthcare, manufacturing, or whatever else it might be). That means that the BA understands:
|Process Improvement Tools and Techniques||Business Analysts need to understand how to:
|IT Solutions perspective||Need to know how to translate that understanding of the business process improvement needs into IT solution requirements to create effective and innovative business solutions|
|Project Process Understanding||Finally, they need to understand:
These fundamental skills have not changed over the years and a good Business Analyst is strong in all of these areas. However, in some cases the role of a BA has degenerated into simply writing requirements documents.
What Is Wrong With the Traditional Business Analyst Role?
The problems with the Traditional Business Analyst role are essentially the same as a Traditional Project Management role.
Level of Uncertainty
In today’s environment, there is a much higher level of uncertainty associated with defining software solutions. The traditional approach of documenting detailed requirements prior to the start of projects just doesn’t work well with high levels of uncertainty.
- The Business Analyst might wind up wasting a lot of time trying to define detailed requirements prior to the start of the project
- Many of those requirements might be based on speculation and assumptions, and
- Those requirements might then go through an enormous amount of change as the project is in progress.
Emphasis on Creativity and Innovation
The emphasis in many projects is shifting:
- In the past, the primary emphasis in many projects has been on planning and control to achieve predictability of project costs and schedules
- Competitive pressures today have created a need to put more emphasis on creativity and innovation to maximize the business value of the solution
An over-emphasis on planning and control can destroy creativity and innovation. Can you imagine trying to develop the next generation of a very innovative product like a new iPhone using a traditional, plan-driven approach? It would be impossible to do that based on developing detailed requirements for the product upfront.
How Do Agile Requirements Work?
To understand the role of a Business Analyst in an Agile environment, we first need to understand how an Agile requirements process works.
- There are a lot of misconceptions about Agile – Some people may think that there are no documented requirements and the project is started by the developers writing code.
- That is not the case – The approach for developing requirements in an Agile project should be directly related to the level of uncertainty in the project
High Levels of Uncertainty
In a project with a high level of uncertainty, it would be foolish to try to develop detailed requirements prior to the start of the project.
- In that environment, the requirements might be limited to an overall vision and high-level requirements that the project must meet.
- More detailed requirements would be further elaborated as the project is in progress. That elaboration would be based on direct feedback and inputs from the users
Lower Level of Uncertainty
If there is a lower level of uncertainty, the project might go further towards developing more defined requirements.
- That might be particularly true if there is a need for some level of predictability of the project costs and schedule
- However, an Agile environment would still emphasize some level of flexibility and adaptivity to maximize the business value of the solution as the project is in progress
There are several key differences in an Agile approach:
1. Less Emphasis on Documentation
Agile requirements are considerably simplified and are typically written in terms of “user stories”.
- A “user story” is a brief and very succinct definition of a business need. It does not provide any detail about how it will be implemented,
- A “user story” is considered to be a “placeholder for conversation”. Further definition of how it will be implemented will be determined based on direct, face-to-face communications with the users. That will take place as the user stories are being implemented.
2. Changes Are Encouraged
An Agile approach is designed around flexibility and adaptivity to maximize the value of the solution. For that reason, changes to requirements as the project is in progress are encouraged.
3. Direct Communication
There is a lot more direct communication between the business users and the project team.
- First, there is a Product Owner who represents the business. The Product Owner directly participates in the project to provide overall business direction and priorities
- Second, the developers on the project team are expected to communicate directly with the business users to further elaborate and define requirements
In this kind of environment,
- It should be obvious that the role of a Business Analyst should be more than just a “middle-man” to talk to the users and document requirements
- That role would inhibit direct communications with the project team. It would probably also limit the flexibility and adaptivity that is so important to an Agile approach
So, What is an Agile Business Analyst?
So, What is an Agile Business Analyst?
- The role of a Business Analyst in an Agile environment is not well-defined just as there is no defined role for a Project Manager at a team-level in an Agile environment
- On small, simple Agile projects there may not be a need for either of these two roles but that is frequently not the case on large, complex enterprise-level projects
In an Agile environment,
- It might be assumed that the Product Owner plays the role that might normally be played by a Business Analyst. However, the Product Owner responsibility goes well beyond the role of a Business Analyst, and
- It can be very difficult for a Product Owner to perform that role without some assistance on very large complex projects
Ways to Provide More Value-Added
In any case, the value-added provided by a Business Analyst in an Agile environment needs to go beyond simply writing requirements documents. Here are some potential ways that a BA can provide a higher level of value.
1. Process Improvement
Many times, simply automating a process “as-is” does not provide a sufficient level of value. Rather than simply documenting a process “as-is”, a Business Analyst can provide a much higher level of value by finding innovative ways to improve an existing process to make it more efficient or more effective.
2. Analyzing a Broadly-Defined Area
Large, complex projects may require:
- Using functional decomposition to define high-level epics and stories to create a well-organized, value-driven framework to provide the required business value in the Product Backlog.
- If the stories and epics follow a logical functional hierarchy, it provides a mechanism for better understanding the relationship of the stories and epics to each other and for satisfying overall business goals.
3. Writing Individual Stories
A Business Analyst can provide value by writing user stories that are very clear and concise and are easy to understand and implement by the development team.
- Writing effective user stories is a skill that is often taken for granted.
- What is often overlooked in good stories is the “why” or the “so that” clause that expresses the business value the story is intended to provide.
- A good BA can provide that perspective that is difficult for a developer to provide.
4. Identifying Related User Stories and Epics
In a large complex project, there is also value in grouping stories into themes and epics as necessary and documenting the interrelationship and associated business process flows as necessary.
- The interrelationship of user stories and epics should be well-understood and
- The implementation of stories across different functional areas may require some planning and coordination so that they are consistently implemented.
- This overall framework can provide a mechanism for easily identifying any inconsistencies and/or missing functionality.
5. Integration With Related Projects
On large projects, there may also be a need to integrate the needs of related projects as well as the needs of a number of different stakeholders to produce an overall solution.
The key point is that if a Business Analyst is involved at all in an Agile project, he/she should add value in some way. He/she should not be just an intermediary between the development team and the business users and stakeholders.
You will find much more detail on this in my Online Agile Project Management Training.