What is the next generation of project management? What is the impact of Agile on the future of project management?
- Does it mean that project managers who are heavily trained in a traditional plan-driven approach to project management will become obsolete over some period of time?
- What do project managers need to do to adjust their career direction to adapt to the future direction of project management?
I believe that the project management profession is at a major turning point that requires broadening our view of what “project management” is and reshaping the direction of the project management profession for the future to fully embrace and integrate both Agile and traditional plan-driven project management as complementary approaches within an overall project management portfolio.
Reinventing Project Management
What sort of image comes to your mind when you think of the words “project management”? Does it have any relationship to Agile? My guess is that many people have a very well-ingrained image of what “project management” is and many people wouldn’t associate “project management” with Agile at all. In fact, many people still see those two disciplines as polar opposites. To see things differently, we have to broaden our thinking about what “project management” is and get past many of the well-established stereotypes of what “project management” is.
Long-lasting companies have learned to “reinvent” themselves from time-to-time to keep up with changes in technology and the business environment they operate in. Here’s an excerpt from Harvard Business Review on that topic:
“Sooner or later, all businesses, even the most successful, run out of room to grow. Faced with this unpleasant reality, they are compelled to reinvent themselves periodically. The ability to pull off this difficult feat—to jump from the maturity stage of one business to the growth stage of the next—is what separates high performers from those whose time at the top is all too brief.”
“The potential consequences are dire for any organization that fails to reinvent itself in time. As Matthew S. Olson and Derek van Bever demonstrate in their book Stall Points, once a company runs up against a major stall in its growth, it has less than a 10% chance of ever fully recovering. Those odds are certainly daunting, and they do much to explain why two-thirds of stalled companies are later acquired, taken private, or forced into bankruptcy.”
Source: “Reinvent Your Business Before It’s Too Late”, Harvard Business Review, January 2011,
Here’s another excellent article on that subject:
“A successful company is like a great white shark. In its prime, it chews up the competition, but if it dares to sit still for too long, it dies. Some of the world’s most profitable and enduring companies have achieved their long track record of success by constantly reinventing themselves.”
“Cell phone maker Nokia started off selling rubber boots. The oil giant Shell used to import and sell actual shells. But these companies and the eight others on our list adapted with the times, evolving their product lines and business strategies to stay one step ahead of their customers’ needs. In business, it’s better to be a chameleon than a great white.”
Source: How Stuff Works, “10 Companies That Completely Reinvented Themselves”
Check out the link above for some great examples of companies that have done that successfully. As the article points out, the trick is recognizing that you are at a “stall point” and taking action before you have stalled for very long and that can be a difficult thing to do.
Project Management History
To understand the transformation that is going on, its useful to look at the history of project management and how we got to where we are today:
- Early History – Project Management could probably be considered to be one of the world’s oldest professions. Think of the Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China. The level of “project management” at that time may have been very crude and they probably didn’t call it “project management” at all but large efforts like that don’t just happen without some kind of planning and organization behind them. In the US, the development of the Transcontinental Railway in the late 1800’s is another example of a very large effort that had to have some kind of planning and organization behind it.
- Scientific Management Approach – Around the turn of the century, along came Frederick Taylor and his co-worker, Henry Gantt. Frederick Taylor started developing new theories on how to organize workers and Henry Gantt created his famous Gantt Charts to describe the order of operations in work.
- World War II and the 50’s and 60’s – World War II resulted in the Manhattan project which was another huge effort and the 1950’s and 1960’s had more large scale efforts such as the Polaris missile program and the Apollo program to put a man on the moon. PERT and CPM were invented and then in 1969, PMI was founded.
The Next Generation of Project Management
The general approach for doing project management hasn’t changed significantly since that time and the big question is “What’s next?” and also “Why Now?” Has the project management profession reached its peak or is there yet another major phase of growth that is just beginning to take place? I believe it is the latter. Here’s why I believe it there is some level of urgency to rethink the way we think about “project management” – the diagram below shows how the adoption rate of new technologies has changed over the last century.
“Source: Mulbrandon, Catherine, Visualizing Economics – Adoption of New Technology Since 1900, http://visualizingeconomics.com/blog/2008/02/18/adoption-of-new-technology-since-1900
This data only goes through 2005, but you can be sure this trend hasn’t slowed down since then. (Think of how quickly smartphones have evolved as an example) This rapid proliferation of new technology calls for a new approach to project management – the traditional, heavily plan-driven approaches of the past can’t keep pace with the speed that technology is changing in many areas.
This dynamic and rapidly changing environment calls for a more adaptive project management approach but that doesn’t necessarily mean that we need to throw out everything we’ve learned about traditional, plan-driven project management and start over again but it does create some significant challenges for individual project managers and for the project management profession, as a whole.
What’s the Impact on Project Managers?
This “raises the bar” for project managers significantly:
- In the past, if you had a PMP certificate, that was as far as you needed to go for many project management roles.
- PMI has now created the Agile Certified Professional (ACP) certification and that’s not an easy certification to get, but that’s only the beginning, in my opinion.
- I think the ACP exam is good certification but it doesn’t go far enough. It is really mostly a test of terminology – it doesn’t really test whether you know how to integrate Agile and traditional project management principles and practices in the right proportions to fit a given situation and that’s the real challenge for project managers, in my opinion.
- A good Agile Project Manager also needs to be a strong cross-functional leader – he/she cannot be just a coordinator or administrator. That means he/she needs to have some credible knowledge of the functions included in the project.
What Needs to be Done to Address These Challenges?
This is a huge challenge to transform the project management profession and broaden our thinking of what a “project manager” is and it will take some time. However, I believe that the alternative of ignoring these trends and continuing to think of a project manager in the narrow context of someone who only does traditional, plan-driven project management approaches will seriously degrade and undermine the project management profession over time. Here’s what I think needs to be done to address this challenge:
- Acknowledge the Need to Make a Change – The first step in any twelve step program is to acknowledge that we have a problem – we cannot deny the impact of Agile on the project management profession and think that traditional, plan-driven project management approaches as we know them will go on forever and Agile is just a fad that will go away.
- Get Past Stereotypes – There are many stereotypes about what traditional project management is and about what Agile is that we need to overcome and change our thinking to see both Agile and traditional project management approaches as complementary to each other rather than competitive.
- Redefine Project Management – We have to better define and develop the concept of what an “Agile Project Manager” is and better define the role that an “Agile Project Manager” might play. In my view, an “Agile Project Manager” is not someone who only does Agile projects; it is someone who has a deep knowledge of both Agile and traditional plan-driven principles and practices and knows how to blend them together in the right proportions to fit a given situation.
- Develop Agile Project Management Training – We need to develop training programs and resources to help project managers reach the goal of becoming an “Agile Project Manager”.
- Influence Enterprise-level Management Practices – Project Managers are a product of the environment that they work in. For example, many project managers take a heavily plan-driven approach to controlling costs and schedules of a project because that’s what their organizations expect of them. To change the behavior of project managers, we change the expectations of what companies expect of project managers and that can require some significant changes in organizational culture.
How I’m Trying to Help
I am very passionate about this because I believe it is critical to the future of the project management profession. Here are some of the things I’m doing to try to help project managers address these challenges:
- Graduate-level Course at Boston University – I’ve developed a new graduate-level course on Agile Project Management that will be offered at Boston University
- New Book – I am currently finalizing a new book called “The Art and Practice of Agile Project Management” that will be released in February 2015. Check it out here:
The Project Manager’s Guide to Mastering Agile
- Online Training – I’ve created several online training courses to help project managers begin to make the transformation to an Agile Project Management approach. Check it out here:Online Training Courses
I encourage any project manager who needs help in making this transformation to check into my online training courses and to contact me directly if I can be of help.