Category Archives: Agile Transformation

Agile Project Management: Are You a Caterpillar or a Butterfly?

I attended a very good webinar the other day with Ankur Nagpal, the CEO of Teachable, which is one of the training platforms that hosts my Agile Project Management Training curriculum.   He was talking about how to market training and made a comment something to the effect of:

“We shouldn’t be providing “training courses”; we should be providing “transformation”

He used the example of transforming a caterpillar into a butterfly.  He is absolutely right and that is exactly the approach I’ve strived to develop in my Agile Project Management courses for the past year and a half.  In fact, the picture I use as a symbol of my new Agile Project Management Academy and my Mastering Agile Project Management course is based on transformation:

Agile Transformation

It’s not exactly transforming “caterpillars” into “butterflies” but I think that analogy fits pretty well. It’s about transforming project managers (who may have been heavily indoctrinated in a traditional, plan-driven approach to project management that hasn’t changed significantly since the 1950’s and 1960’s) into a much more high impact orientation that is:

  • Focused on producing results in addition to simply managing projects
  • Based on blending together Agile and traditional plan-driven project management principles and practices in the right proportions to fit any situation rather than force-fitting all projects to a traditional, plan-driven approach

That’s not an easy thing to do for several reasons:

  • PMI has at least recognized Agile as a legitimate variation of project management but “Agile” and traditional plan-driven project management are still treated as separate and independent domains of knowledge with little or no integration between the two
  • The prevailing thinking among many people in the project management profession is that, by definition, “project management” is defined as managing projects using a traditional, plan-driven approach and anything else isn’t really “project management”
  • There also many well-established stereotypes, myths, and misconceptions to overcome. For example, one of them is that there is a binary and mutually-exclusive choice between “Agile” and “Waterfall” and you need to force-fit your projects and business environment to one of those extremes rather than going in the other direction and fitting the methodology (or combination of methodologies) to the project and business environment

There are obviously some big transformations needed in this area to shift people’s thinking:

  • We need to see “Agile” and “Waterfall” in a fresh new perspective as complementary approaches rather than competitive
  • We also need see “Agile versus Waterfall”  from the perspective of a continuous spectrum of approaches from heavily adaptive at one extreme to heavily plan-driven at the other extreme with lots of alternatives in between rather than a binary and mutually-exclusive choice between two extremes
  • Project Managers, and the project management profession as a whole, need to take a broader view of what “project management” is that embraces Agile as well as traditional plan-driven project management
  • And, Project Managers also need to see “project management” in terms of producing results and not just managing projects and using whatever methodology (or combination of methodologies) is needed to produce the results as effectively and efficiently as possible

I think you will agree that is a very tall order and a daunting challenge but that is exactly the challenge I have taken on in the Agile Project Management curriculum I’ve developed.  Check it out here:

Agile Project Management Academy

How Do You Go About Selling Agile?

A student in one of my courses asked if I could help him develop a short and succinct way of “How Do You Go About Selling Agile? I think it’s an excellent topic and I told him I would write up something on that. Here it is…

First, I don’t think that anyone should start with an objective of “selling Agile” to anyone. There are a lot of people out there who try to do that and I think it is fundamentally the wrong approach to try to convince someone to become more Agile rather than focusing on how becoming more Agile will help them and what problem it will solve.

I also very strongly believe that there is not a binary and mutually-exclusive choice between “Agile” and “Waterfall”; and, rather than attempting to force-fit a business or project to one of those extremes, you have to go in the other direction and fit the methodology (whatever it might be – Agile or plan-driven or some combination of both) to the situation. It takes a lot more skill to do that but it definitely can be done. It requires:

  • A broader knowledge of different methodologies (both Agile or adaptive and plan-driven) and an ability to see past many of the stereotypes, myths, and misconceptions that exist about what’s commonly referred to as “Agile” and “Waterfall” to see those two approaches in a fresh, new perspective as being complementary to each other rather than competitive and to objectively understand the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches
  • The ability to take a “systems thinking” approach to see those methodologies in a broader context beyond just a development process perspective of how they relate to an overall business and what problems they might solve
  • In addition to all of that, you also need to understand the principles behind the methodologies at a deeper level (rather than just the mechanics of how to perform the methodology) to understand how to blend different, seemingly disparate methodologies together as needed to fit a given situation

I’ve developed a set of online training courses that are specifically designed to help prepare people for those challenges, you can check that out here:

Agile Project Management Training Courses

However, if you’re trying to “sell” a manager on becoming more agile, he/she probably doesn’t have all of those skills and they’re probably not willing to sit through a series of training courses to develop those skills either; so, how do you develop a relatively simple “elevator speech” to help someone understand why they should even consider becoming more Agile?  Here are some thoughts on that:

  1. First, you have to look at it from an overall business perspective , not from a more limited development process perspective. It’s very easy to get “tunnel vision” with Agile – we get so enthusiastic about the benefits of Agile from a development process perspective that we assume that what’s good for the development process must be good for the company as a whole and that’s not necessarily the case. Rather than attempting to force-fit a company to an Agile approach; you may have to craft an approach that is more well-aligned with the primary success factors that drive the company’s business and becoming more Agile may or may not be the most important factor in the company’s overall business success.
  2. Second, you have to recognize that some companies are scared to death of Agile – they’re afraid of losing control and that fear is not totally unfounded if the Agile approach is not well-designed and managed. So, you may need to start off with more of a hybrid approach as an initial first step to demonstrate success rather than going full-bore into a complete corporate Agile transformation. You also need to recognize that an Agile transformation can take a long time and demands a lot of patience and perseverance.
  3. Finally, nothing sells better than results. Work on developing good results and that will sell itself.

Although the benefits of adopting a more agile approach will vary from one company to another, there are some general benefits that apply, to some extent, to any company. Here are the key general benefits I would focus on in my “elevator speech”…

  • Adaptability – The biggest and most general benefit is adaptability – regardless of whatever other benefits an agile approach might provide, no one is likely to argue that there’s a big advantage in being able to tailor an approach to fit a project and a business rather than force-fitting all projects to a traditional, plan-driven project management approach
  • Time-to-market – Probably the next most important general benefit is time-to-market – a lot of people have the impression that an Agile project is always faster and that’s generally true but not always true. The real emphasis in Agile, in my opinion, is keeping the customer closely-engaged with the project as it progresses to ensure that what you’re developing really meets their needs. Sometimes that may actually take longer because it may involve some trial-and-error. However, very few people could argue that prioritizing requirements and delivering functionality incrementally rather than waiting to deliver the entire project all at once can significantly accelerate progress even if you don’t take a full Agile approach.
  • Reduced Costs – Another big factor is reduced costs associated with reducing unnecessary overhead in projects. This is another one that doesn’t require adopting a full Agile development approach to achieve – all it requires is taking a hard look at some of the documentation and other artifacts and controls used in a project and deciding whether they really produce value or not and who they produce value for.
  • Customer SatisfactionFinally, as I’ve mentioned, the big selling point of Agile is the improved customer satisfaction you get from having a customer directly engaged in the project to ensure that the project really solves their business problem and provides an appropriate level of value to them

The key point to emphasize is that all of these are relatively tangible benefits that can be realized, to some extent, on any project simply by using more of an “Agile Mindset” and it doesn’t necessarily require adopting a full-blown textbook Agile approach like Scrum and/or risk losing control of your business to get some of these benefits. Also, in addition to those more tangible benefits, there are also a lot of intangible benefits such as:

  • Improved employee productivity and morale that results from more empowered teams
  • Improved organizational synergy that results from higher levels of collaboration, trust, and shared responsibility within the organization

I want to add one note to this post that came out of some follow-up discussions we had on LinkedIn on this post…The word “selling” has a variety of different connotations. Some people regard “selling” as a manipulative process to convince someone to buy something they don’t want (like life insurance or used cars).

Years ago when I was a Program Manager in a large computer company, part of the training to become a Program Manager was a course called “Solution Selling” which was basically a consultative approach to “selling”. It created a different approach to “selling” – instead of going in to a client to sell them something like “Agile”, the “solution selling” approach is to go in to the customer and do a lot active listening to understand their problem before attempting to sell any solution. I think that’s the right approach with Agile also. There are people out there who get overly-zealous about “selling” Agile to the extent that “Agile” becomes a solution to any problem you might have. That’s the wrong approach, in my opinion.

Modifying and Extending Agile and Scrum

I recently participated in a discussion on LinkedIn that was initiated by someone who suggested several possible roles for a Business Analyst in Agile/Scrum that didn’t seem consistent with Agile principles at all. I believe that modifying and extending Agile and Scrum may be necessary to fit the situation, but it has to be done intelligently and I think it takes some skill to figure out what makes sense and what doesn’t.

We all know that there are Agile “zealots” who insist on rigid adherence to doing Agile/Scrum “by the book” without any deviation. On the other hand, there are people who “wing it” and treat Agile/Scrum practices like a “cafeteria menu” where you can pick and choose the principles and practices you want to adopt and which ones to ignore. Neither one of those approaches makes sense in my opinion but there’s a lot of “gray area” between those extremes. So, how do you determine what makes sense and what doesn’t make sense? I don’t think there’s a clear answer to that question but here’s some guidelines that I think are useful.

  • There’s a big difference between:
    1. Taking a proven framework like Scrum and modifying it and extending it in a way that is consistent with Agile principles and practices, and
    2. Just starting from scratch ignoring Scrum and all other Agile methodologies, principles, and practices and attempting to put together some kind of ad-hoc approach
  • There’s an analogy to the martial arts that I think fits pretty well. There are a variety of different kinds of martial arts but they all have some similarity and they all require some level of knowledge, proficiency, and discipline in how they’re practiced to be good at it. You don’t just go out and start doing martial arts without any training and experience to know how to do it. Check out this article I wrote on “Stages of Mastery in Agile”.

    http://managedagile.com/2014/06/13/levels-of-mastery-in-agile/

    It is based on a model of stages of maturity in martial arts called “Shu-ha-ri”:

    http://managedagile.com/2013/07/17/agile-and-lesssons-learned-from-martial-arts/

    The essence of the “Shu-ha-ri” martial arts philosophy is that you should be at a level of proficiency before you start improvising and “improvisation without knowledge and proficiency is just amateurism”. I think that is also very applicable to Agile. It takes a considerable amount of skill to figure out how to modify and extend Scrum and other Agile methodologies to fit a given situation.

The key message is that people shouldn’t underestimate the level of skill it takes to modify and extend an Agile/Scrum approach to fit a given situation. That’s a key advantage of some predefined frameworks like SAFe but, on the other hand, even with some of the predefined frameworks, it takes some skill to adapt an Agile approach to fit a business and there is no “silver bullet”.

Business Process Reengineering and Agile Transformation

I recently wrote an article on a “Business-centric Approach to Agile“. Have you ever thought about how similar Business Process Reengineering and Agile Transformation are? The similarities are amazing but I suspect that many people don’t think of any relationship between BPR and Agile.

Business Process Reengineering (BPR) was very hot in the 1990’s. One of the catalysts that precipitated the need for BPR was the advent of new Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. ERP systems enabled many companies to much more completely automate their business processes but it was a gut-wrenching change for many companies because implementing an ERP system in many cases required rethinking their business processes to take a much more cross-functional approach to their business. Another important catalyst was “lean manufacturing” which seeks to eliminate the use of any resource that does not create value for the end consumer. Does that sound like an Agile enterprise-level transformation?

Here’s how Bain and Company defines “Business Process Reengineering”:

“Business Process Reengineering involves the radical redesign of core business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity, cycle times and quality. In Business Process Reengineering, companies start with a blank sheet of paper and rethink existing processes to deliver more value to the customer. They typically adopt a new value system that places increased emphasis on customer needs. Companies reduce organizational layers and eliminate unproductive activities in two key areas. First, they redesign functional organizations into cross-functional teams. Second, they use technology to improve data dissemination and decision making”

Source: Bain & Company: Insights – Management Tools, Business Process Reengineering

Let’s take this definition one step at a time:

  • The first statement is “Business Process Reengineering involves the radical redesign of core business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity, cycle times and quality” – there’s no question in my mind that that statement could apply to an Agile transformation, but do companies really realize that and do it that way?
  • The next statement is “In Business Process Reengineering, companies start with a blank sheet of paper and rethink existing processes to deliver more value to the customer.” There’s also a good fit with that statement. You may not start with a “blank sheet of paper” and throw out all your existing management processes, but it is definitely important to rethink many existing stereotypes and misconceptions that exist about both Agile and traditional management approaches before you launch into an Agile transformation.
  • The statement that “They typically adopt a new value system that places increased emphasis on customer needs” is very relevant to an Agile transformation but is probably not given the attention that it deserves. When a company implements an Agile transformation, it is often done from a limited development perspective focused on how it improves the development process but that needs to be done in a larger context of how it improves the customer value that the company delivers to its customers.
  • The last statement is absolutely very relevant to an Agile transformation: “Companies reduce organizational layers and eliminate unproductive activities in two key areas. First, they redesign functional organizations into cross-functional teams. Second, they use technology to improve data dissemination and decision making”

I’m not defending BPR, there were definitely some problems in the way it was implemented, but there’s a lot we can learn from it (both good and bad). If more companies realized how similar to Business Process Reengineering is to an Agile transformation and treated it that way, the probability of success would probably be significantly higher. It expands your thinking to see an Agile transformation in an overall business context rather than a very limited development-centric perspective.

I’ve developed a new online training course called “Making Agile Work for Your Business” that is designed to help companies see this perspective and to take a business-centric approach to successfully integrate an Agile development approach into their business.

A “Business Centric” Approach to Agile

Many Agile coaching and consulting companies take what I would call a “developer-centric” approach to Agile. It is heavily focused on team-level capabilities and is primarily oriented around improving the development process. There’s nothing wrong with that, in itself; however, people often make the mistake of assuming that whatever is good for the development process must be good for the business as a whole and that is not necessarily the case. I think that a “business centric” approach to Agile is needed.

What I’ve seen frequently is that people have the belief that any kind of traditional management approach is bad, Agile is good, and there is a binary and mutually-exclusive choice between “Agile” and what’s commonly called “Waterfall”. That over-simplifies what I believe is a much more complicated decision and the result of that is that people often try to force-fit a company’s business into an Agile approach. The right solution, in my opinion, is to go in the other direction and fit the approach to the company’s business and sometimes that may require blending an Agile approach with a more traditional management approach in the right proportions to fit the company’s business rather than force-fitting the whole company to an Agile approach.

Becoming agile for the sake of becoming agile may not be an appropriate goal for all companies. You have to ask “what problem will it solve?” and “how will it really benefit the company?” and the answer to those questions may be very different depending on the nature of the company’s business. Check out my article on “Where Does it Hurt?” for more on that. Agile works best in companies that are in the business of developing software products like Intuit who develops Quicken, QuickBooks, and TurboTax and other companies where software development has a very direct relationship to their business objectives like an Amazon.com which is very technology-driven.

In those companies, there is a strong and direct alignment between an Agile development process and the company’s business objectives and it is relatively easy to implement an Agile development approach in that environment. In companies that are not in the primary business of developing software products, the relationship between the development process and the company’s business objectives is typically much more indirect and there is less of a natural alignment between an Agile development approach and the company’s business objectives.

The key to developing a more business-centric approach is that you have to recognize that at an enterprise level, the overall approach must be designed to satisfy the critical success factors of the company’s business. A good model to look at to understand this better is the idea of “value disciplines”. Check out my article on “Agile and Corporate Culture” for more on that. For example, if a company like Walmart is in a business that demands “operational excellence” as the primary value discipline, one of the most important critical success factors in their business is going to be reducing costs to be most competitive. How does an Agile development approach contribute to achieving that objective? The answer isn’t necessarily obvious.

What’s needed in this situation in many cases is more of a “top-down” business analysis to identify potential areas for process improvement so that those initiatives are really well-aligned with the critical success factors that are most important to the company’s business. That should be one of the first steps in an Agile transformation for this kind of company. Before you jump to the conclusion that Agile is a good solution to any problem they might have and start working on making them more agile, you have to figure out how its really going to benefit the company and make the company more competitive in the business that they’re in.

It also doesn’t necessarily require throwing out any existing management processes that they may have and making the whole company more Agile. There may be a legitimate reason for some of those management processes that are already aligned with the critical success factors in their business and it may require some compromise to adapt an Agile development approach to that environment. In the 1990’s and early 2000’s, I did a lot of work with companies on large-scale process improvement and business process reengineering initiatives and even though that effort had nothing to do with Agile at the time, the methodology you would use to do a business-centric Agile transformation would be very similar.

This is a great example of what I call the “Program du Jour”. When a new management approach like Agile comes along, we often “throw the baby out with the bath water” and consider anything that came before it as obsolete and passé. I saw a similar thing when Six Sigma was hot in the early 2000’s. Everyone wanted to jump on the Six Sigma bandwagon, there was a lot of hoopla about it (like green belts and black belts, etc.), any other process improvement methodology that came before it was considered out-of-date, and people got lost in the mechanics of Six Sigma without understanding how it really helped their business.

I published my first book at that time in 2003 and did quite a bit of research before writing my book. What I found was that the companies I considered most successful in implementing Six Sigma had so thoroughly integrated it into the way they did business that it might not have been easily identifiable as Six Sigma and they may not have even called it “Six Sigma”. I think a similar thing is needed with Agile today…companies need to go beyond the mechanics of simply implementing “Agile” and figure out how to really integrate it into the way they do business and there isn’t just one canned way to do that. The approach for doing that may be very different depending on the nature of the company’s business.

To do this, requires a broader approach for implementing an enterprise-level Agile transformation that blends a top-down business-centric approach with a bottom-up developer-centric approach in the right proportions. The basic approach for doing that top-down “business-centric” approach to identify areas of process improvement for the business might not be a lot different from what we did 10 years ago for some of the business process improvement initiatives and business process reengineering initiatives I was involved in at that time that had absolutely nothing to do with Agile.

In fact, an Agile transformation is very similar to what you would do in a major business process reengineering effort. Of course, there are many ways to do this top-down business centric analysis depending on the nature of the company’s business and the company’s appetite for making a significant change but this can be a way to keep an Agile transformation well-aligned with the company’s business objectives rather than simply becoming Agile for the sake of becoming Agile.

Making Agile Work for Your Business

Background

Making Agile work for your business is a real challenge. There is widespread knowledge that exists about almost every possible aspect of how to optimize an Agile development process at a team level; however, the knowledge about how to make Agile work at an enterprise level is much more limited. There have been numerous failures in trying to make Agile work at an enterprise level and I believe that there are some significant misconceptions behind these failures:

  • Agile versus Waterfall – At the project management level, there is a big misconception that there is a binary and mutually-exclusive choice between an Agile approach and a traditional plan-driven project management approach (or what people many times refer to loosely as “Waterfall”). The result of this misconception is that people often try to force-fit projects to one of those extremes when a much better solution is to fit the approach to the project and sometimes a hybrid of the two approaches is the best fit. (See my online training course “Learning the Truth About Agile versus Waterfall” for more on that)
  • Aligning Agile With a Business Strategy – Another big misconception is that whatever is good for the development process must be good for the company as a whole and that is also not necessarily the case. At the business management level, the approach should be designed around what makes the most sense for the company’s business and that may or may not be exactly the same as the approach used to manage projects at the development level. The people designing the enterprise-level strategy need to be able to understand the business strategy as well as the development strategy and fit the two together. It isn’t necessarily just a matter of forcing the entire company to become more agile.
    • An Agile development process is easiest to apply in companies whose primary business is developing software products (Such as Intuit QuickBooks and TurboTax) or companies where software development has a very direct and significant leverage effect on the company’s business (Such as Amazon.com). In those companies, there is a fairly direct alignment between a company’s overall business management goals and an Agile development process.
    • In companies where that is not the case, the alignment may be less direct. For example, it may or may not be totally realistic for a company to adopt a complete, top-to-bottom Agile approach for their entire business and a more traditional, plan-driven approach may be appropriate at the higher levels (at least as an interim solution). However, that doesn’t preclude implementing a totally Agile or hybrid Agile development process. The Managed Agile Development process is an example of a hybrid Agile approach that can be used in that kind of environment.
  • Enterprise-level Agile Transformation Strategies

    There are a number of different potential strategies at an organizational level for implementing an Agile transformation:

    • Some organizations may choose to implement a relatively complete top-to-bottom Agile transformation for their business – Dean Leffingwell’s Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is an example of such a model. However, that can be a very ambitious and gut-wrenching change for many organizations and it also may not be the best solution.
    • Fortunately, there are other alternatives companies can select to fit an Agile approach with their business

    Organizations typically have different layers of management as shown in the diagram below; and, at each level, there is a choice of taking more of an Agile approach or more of a traditional, plan-driven approach:

    Enterprise Agile Frameworks

    Overall Summary

    The important thing to recognize is that this is not a “one size fits all” decision. What is the right approach for one company may not be the best approach for another. It’s kind of like a chess game to choose the fit the right strategy to each level of the organization as shown in the diagram below:

    Enterprise Agile 2

    It should be apparent that making Agile work at an enterprise level isn’t necessarily as simple as it might seem and requires a broad understanding of both the business strategy and the development strategy to fit the two together. For more information on this subject, check out my online training course on “Making Agile Work for Your Business”.

What is an Enterprise-level Agile Coach?

What is an Enterprise-level Agile Coach? When people use the term “Agile Coach” it is often not exactly clear what they mean. Most often, what they’re talking about is what I would call a team-level Agile Coach. That is someone who works at a tactical level with individual members of an Agile team to help them become more proficient in executing an Agile development process such as Scrum. There is very little standardization or certification for what it takes to become an “Agile Coach” at that level and almost anyone could claim to be an “Agile Coach”.

Beyond that; however, there is a different kind of Agile coaching role at an enterprise-level that needs to be better-defined and differentiated from a normal team-level “Agile Coach” role. The enterprise-level role is someone who works at a more strategic level to integrate an Agile development process with a company’s business. That role is not well-defined at all and the difference between the team-level role and the enterprise-level role is also not clearly differentiated. It is assumed that someone who has “Agile Coach” on his/her resume can do all of that and I don’t believe that is necessarily correct.

What often happens in applying Agile at an enterprise level is that an “Agile Coach” attempts to plan and organize an enterprise-level agile transformation. However, that person is probably only trained in Agile from a team-level development process perspective and makes the assumption that whatever is good for the development process must be good for the business as a whole. They also may assume that it is a binary and mutually-exclusive decision to be either “Agile” or “Waterfall” and attempt to force-fit the entire company into an Agile model when the right solution is to fit the approach to the company’s business. I don’t believe that either of those assumptions is necessarily correct.

The problem is this – Agile works very well in companies that are in the primary business of developing products (particularly software products – Intuit is an example that develops TurboTax, Quicken, and QuickBooks). In those companies, there is a strong and natural alignment between an Agile development process and the overall business goals of the company and it is very easy to apply an Agile development process in that environment. It is much more difficult to apply an Agile development process in a company who is not in the primary business of developing products and is in some other kind of business where the relationship of an Agile development process to the company’s overall business strategy is much more indirect.

In companies that are not in the primary business of developing products, you can’t just force the company to be “Agile” in order to make the company more amenable to an Agile development process. The company’s overall culture and business strategy needs to be optimized around whatever the critical success factors are for the business that they are in. For example, if a company is in a business that requires operational excellence, it needs to focus its overall culture and business strategy primarily on efficiency of operations and reducing costs and that doesn’t necessarily align with just becoming more “Agile”. In that kind of environment, you have to develop a strategy that considers both the company’s business strategy and the requirements of an Agile development process to develop a well-integrated approach. The implementation of that strategy often requires fitting the approach to the company’s business environment rather than trying to force-fit the company to some kind of overall Agile approach.

The approach that you might wind up with in that kind of environment also could be a blend of Agile and traditional plan-driven management principles and practices blended together in the right proportions to fit the situation. That is a lot more difficult thing to do and requires a lot more skill than a typical team-level Agile coach would normally have. It requires an understanding of:

  • Agile principles and practices as well as
  • Traditional project management principles and practices

and a deeper understanding of the principles behind both of them (not just the mechanics) to know how to blend them together as necessary to fit a given situation. Beyond that; however, it also requires the ability to look at a very complex, broad-based, enterprise-level business from both a more strategic high-level business management perspective as well as a more tactical product development process perspective to develop a strategy for integrating the two.

What often seems to happen is someone who is trained in “Agile” from a development process perspective attempts to steer the company in the right direction and that person typically doesn’t have the breadth of business management experience and agile development process experience to know how to successfully integrate the two. Is it any wonder why some of these “Agile transformations” are not successful?

I’ve developed some on-line training that should be helpful to people who want to understand this better:

  • Mastering Agile Project Management for Project Management – addresses this from a project management perspective to help project managers see Agile and traditional project management principles and practices as complementary rather than competitive and to learn how to blend the two together to fit any given situation.
  • Making Agile Work for Your Business for Executives – addresses this from a business management perspective and provides some essential principles and guidelines of how to successfully develop a well-integrated enterprise-level approach for any business.

Agile Transformation: Where Does it Hurt?

Agile transformation: where does it hurt? I’ve seen a lot of people jump into Agile just because it’s the latest and coolest thing to do and there’s a lot of momentum behind it.  It’s like the “Program du jour” for some companies – I can remember a similar phenomenon when Six Sigma was initially coming into vogue in the early 2000’s.  At that time I worked with a number of companies on process improvement projects and I interviewed a number of companies for the first book I published, “From Quality to Business Excellence:

  • I saw many companies that got wrapped up in the rituals and hoopla of Six Sigma (green belts, black belts, etc.) and, in many cases, their implementation was superficial and didn’t last.
  • On the other hand, there were a small number of companies that took the time to understand Six Sigma at a deeper level, blend it together with other process improvement methodologies, and really integrate it into the way they did business. In many cases, it was such an integral part of their business that it was difficult to recognize it as Six Sigma. Naturally, those were the companies I thought were really excellent.

I met with a company recently who is considering adopting a more agile approach to help them determine if it made sense for them and a question I like to ask in that kind of situation is “Where does it hurt?”  In other words, what are the aspects of your current process that are causing some amount of “pain” to the organization that you would like to improve on?

Many people skip that step of defining what problem they want to solve and just jump into Agile and I think it’s important to more clearly define what you want to get out of it.  There are at least a couple of reasons why that is important:

  • Agile is not a panacea for every problem, and
  • Many businesses make the mistake of force-fitting their business to some methodology (Agile or whatever)…the right solution, in my opinion, is to fit the methodology (or combination of methodologies) to the business

An Agile transformation may also not get much momentum in a company if the problem it addresses and the goals to be accomplished aren’t defined.  An Agile transformation typically involves some change management and I learned a long time ago that there are three very important elements for any significant change management effort to be successful:

  1. Burning Platform – There needs to be a “burning platform”…there needs to be a sufficient level of pain with the current situation to motivate people to make a change particularly a difficult change that has some risks associated with it.  Specifically, with regard to an Agile transformation, if you don’t clearly identify what is wrong with the current state, the transformation may not gain too much momentum.
  2. Vision for the Future – There needs to be a vision for the future – what does the end state look like after the change?  With regard to an Agile transformation, how will the overall enterprise-level model change as a result of implementing Agile?  Will it be a pure Agile approach from top-to-bottom or is some other kind of framework more appropriate?
  3. Progress in That Direction – In any significant change, there are always naysayers who will stand on the sidelines and wait for it to fail, but it becomes increasingly difficult to do that if you demonstrate progress and benefits to the organization.  With regard to an Agile transformation, a lot of people advocate “just start” without a lot of upfront planning – I’m not an advocate of that extreme, but there certainly is value in starting to make demonstrable progress as quickly as possible.

I think Agile is entering a new stage of maturity where it is no longer perceived as a fad, a lot of the hype religious zealotry about Agile is fading away, and a more pragmatic approach is emerging focused on doing what’s right for the organization.  A good article I recently read called that “Post-Agilisim”:

http://www.jenrickblog.co.uk/2013/11/post-agilism-world-gary-sage/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=Jenrick+Servcies+Ltd&utm_campaign=3285069_The+Digest+-+Nov+(week+1)+-+RE-SEND&utm_content=postagilismgarysage&dm_i=12QQ1YERX,BQ45HU,7120M,1

 

Enterprise-level Agile Implementation

I was recently asked to help a consulting firm who is working with a client having trouble with a very large enterprise-level Agile implementation.  It seems that the company had gone head-over-heels into Agile across the whole company and the senior executives were unhappy with the way it was going.  Many projects were going off track and senior management didn’t feel like they had much visibility and predictability to see if all the development efforts were really well-aligned with the company’s business strategy.  I think this is a typical problem that many companies face for large-scale, enterprise-level Agile implementations.

The problem is that large companies typically have some kind of management infrastructure such as a PMO  for managing projects as well as some kind of project portfolio management approach to align projects with the company’s business strategy and that existing management infrastructure probably isn’t totally compatible with an Agile development approach.  The choices are:

  1. Dismantle the existing management infrastructure and simply implement Agile at a development team level with no guiding management infrastructure.  That typically results in problems  such as projects going out of control and not being well-aligned with the company’s business strategy.
  2. Implement a new top-to-bottom Agile management approach such as the Scaled Agile Framework.  This is a good solution but requires a major redefinition of the company’s management infrastructure and some companies are just not ready to make that kind of gut-wrenching change.
  3. Implement a “bridge” between the existing management infrastructure and the Agile development approach using a hybrid management approach overlaid on top of the Agile development process.

The most important point is that you can’t ignore the need for these higher levels of management and implement Agile as a development process without defining some way that it integrates with the company’s overall business strategy. The choices look something like this:

Enterprise Level Agiie Business Strategy

This can be a difficult thing to do because standard Agile methodologies such as Scrum do not provide much guidance above the development team level and there are a number of choices at each of these levels.  At each level, there is a choice of implementing a more Agile or a more traditional, plan-driven management approach.  It is somewhat like a chess game as shown in the diagram below:

Enterprise Agile 2

Here’s how I would position some of the frameworks for filling this need:

Enterprise Agile 3

The three frameworks shown above are:

  1. My own Managed Agile Development model
  2. Scott Ambler’s Disciplined Agile Delivery model
  3. Dean Leffingwell’s Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)